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Since mosquitoes require standing water to breed, and removing all sources of stagnant water like old tires , used cans , buckets and barrels, the mosquito population can be reduced. Mosquito larvae eating fish can be introduced in ponds, lakes and wells. Oils which increase the surface tension are also added to ponds, so that the larvae and pupae cannot obtain air required for breathing.
In areas affected by mosquito borne diseases like dengue or malaria, local health authorities usually spray chemical pesticides. This method is less effective than other methods, but is usually the last resort. Spraying is done in the evening between 6.30 pm and 9.00 pm when mosquitoes are most active. High concentrations of this spray are toxic to human beings.
For personal protection, a person should wear clothes that fully cover the body while going outdoors. This will minimize the area available to the mosquitoes for biting.
A fan which generates a gentle breeze is an effective mosquito repellant, since mosquitoes cannot fly in moving air. For higher concentrations of mosquitoes increase the fan speed.
Mosquito nets which are treated with insecticides are one of the widely used methods of protecting a person while sleeping. However, the net should not be torn and it should be tied properly, without leaving any gap.
Doors and windows should be closed just before sunset, to prevent mosquitoes from entering the house. All gaps in the windows should be sealed tightly. Enter your house early and avoid opening doors after the sun sets, as mosquitoes will swarm into the house. Generally mosquito concentrations are higher at ground level.
Commercially available household mosquito repellants include mosquito coils, electric mats and mosquito repellant vaporizers. They are reviewed here. The effectiveness of ultrasonic mosquito repellants has not been proven.
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